K-Athena is a partial conversion of Athena++, using Kokkos for performance portability, meaning that it runs efficiently on CPUs and GPUs. The code is a precursor to the Parthenon and AthenaPK projects, implementing only uniform grids efficiently when running on GPUs. However, the code was a valuable proof of concept for a performance-portable magnetohydrodynamics code, allowing future exascale simulations to be unconstrained by niche architectures.
K-Athena is publicly available on gitlab.
As part of the development effort, we quantified the performance portability of code using roofline models. We constructed roofline models on each of the CPU and GPU devices on which we tested K-Athena. Roofline models allow estimations of the theoretical peak throughput of a code as limited by its arithmetic intensity (the number of operations execute per byte loaded) and by the bandwidths and computational throughputs of the hardware. By comparing the actual efficiency achieved to the theoretical efficiency for each architecture, we obtain a performance efficiency for each machine that can be directly compared, even if the architectures are very different.
Roofline model of an NVIDIA Tesla V100 with the arithmetic intensity of K-Athena, showing performance in TFLOPS versus arithmetic intensity in floating point operations execute per byte loaded and written. Throughputs appear as horizontal ceilings, bandwidths of the different memory spaces of the hardware appear as diagonal ceilings, and arithmetic intensities of the code appear as vertical lines. The intersect of an arithmetic intensity with a bandwidth or throughput ceiling show the theoretical throughput ceiling imposed by that bandwidth or throughput. We generated rooflines for all architectures on which we profiled K-Athena.
Efficiency achieved on each architecture on which we profiled K-Athena, showing the percentage performance achieved out of the theoretical performance as limited by the DRAM and L1 memory for each architecture. By taking the harmonic mean of these efficiencies we arrive at a performance portability measure. The implementation of K-Athena (and similar MHD codes) is typically limited by the DRAM bandwidth, leading to a performance portability of 62.8%. Less efficiency utilization of the L1 cache on almost all architectures leads to a 7.7% performance portability with respect to the L1 cache.
Our full method description and performance analysis can be found in IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems.